In Little League, everyone’s a winner. In the battle of almond versus peanut butter, we’re not teaching sportsmanship, but we don’t really need to crown a champion, either.
In order to have an intelligent discussion on this topic, let’s state the obvious – this discussion is about the virtues of almonds and peanuts; their form as pastes is mostly irrelevant.
The case for almonds:
The almond is not a true nut. It’s actually the seed from the fruit of the almond tree, and is closely related to peaches and cherries.
Almonds are one of my favorite foods. I even designed a challenge around them. They are packed with nutritionally beneficial compounds. Almonds are high in vitamin E, B vitamins, fiber and essential minerals (calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium). From Dr. David Samadi:
Almonds are one of the best sources of alpha-tocopherol —the form of vitamin E that’s best absorbed by your body. This is important to your muscles because it can help prevent free-radical damage after workouts or muscle strain and damage. The less free-radical damage, the faster your muscles can recover. The antioxidant benefit of vitamin E also helps defend against sun damage, and has been associated with good heart health. And almonds can be considered “brain food.” Healthy levels of vitamin E have been shown to prevent cognitive decline, boost alertness and preserve memory longer.
The fat in almonds has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels. From a study published in Nutrition Reviews:
Almonds have been found to have a consistent LDL-C-lowering effect in healthy individuals, and in individuals with high cholesterol and diabetes, in both controlled and free-living settings… Mechanisms responsible for the LDL-C reduction observed with almond consumption are likely associated with the nutrients almonds provide. Biologically active by nature, these nutrients target primary mechanistic routes of LDL-C reduction, including decreased (re)absorption of cholesterol and bile acid, increased bile acid and cholesterol excretion, and increased LDL-C receptor activity. The nutrients present in almonds may regulate enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis and bile acid production.
The case for peanuts:
Peanuts, like almonds, are not true nuts. Because peanuts are cultivated from plants, rather than trees, they are classified as legumes, along with peas, beans and lentils.
Peanuts are a good source of vitamin E, niacin, folate, magnesium and phosphorus. They are also high in fiber and protein. From whfoods.com:
Not only do peanuts contain oleic acid, the healthful fat found in olive oil, but new research shows these tasty legumes are also as rich in antioxidants as many fruits.
While unable to boast an antioxidant content that can compare with the fruits highest in antioxidants, such as pomegranate, roasted peanuts do rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and strawberries, and are far richer in antioxidants than apples, carrots or beets.
Additionally, peanuts have significant quantities of resveratrol, a chemical linked to reduced risk of cancer and heart disease. 
Rather than turn this into a full-blown research paper and highlight every health benefits of each of these little beauties, I’ll simply state that they both have countless virtues related to nutrition. While there are small differences in the micronutrients between almond and peanut butters, it’s hard to go wrong nutritionally.
How these butters are bought and consumed may have more of an impact.
Peanut butters, because they are more popular, tend to be more highly processed. From fitday.com:
You need to know whether the product been made using a cold-press process which preserves nutrients, or if excessive heat was used in the preparation process.
Most almond butters on the shelf are made without added sugars, preservatives or fats, but picking out a jar of peanut butter requires doing some careful label reading. Make sure to avoid any options listing partially hydrogenated oils in your peanut butter; trans fats don’t belong in either butter.
Peanuts also tend to cause more, and more serious, allergic reactions. While there are also almond allergies, these are much less common.
Finally, you’ll only get the nutritional benefits of either butter if you can afford to eat it. Almond butter is less commercially available and is usually considerably more expensive. I buy this brand. It’s an investment, but I trust the quality and if there is a place I’m willing to splurge, it’s on my health. My peanut butter costs significantly less, though I still make sure to buy one that I feel confident about.
The bottom line is that neither almond butter nor peanut butter dominates. Either can be part of a healthy lifestyle, and in fact, I keep both on hand. While almond butter may have a slight edge nutritionally, cost and personal preference should be the deciding factor in your decision.